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face mask

face mask

2020-07-17


news-face mask-JD WATER-img


China was the first country in the world to use face masks.


In ancient times, in order to prevent dust and breath pollution, people in the court began to cover their mouths and noses with silk scarves.

"Mencius · From Low" record :" Xi Zi is unclean, then people all cover their nose and pass.

It was very unhygienic to cover one's nose with one's hands or sleeves, and it was not convenient to do other things.

In his book The Travels of Marco Polo, Marco Polo described his experiences of living in China for seventeen years.

One of them said, "In the palace of the Yuan Dynasty, every one who offered food covered his mouth and nose with silk cloth so that his breath would not touch his food."

The silk cloth covering the mouth and nose is the original mask.


In the early 13th century, masks appeared only in Chinese courts.

To prevent their breath from reaching the emperor's food, the waiters made masks out of a silk and gold cloth


Masks began to be used in medical care at the end of the 19th century.

German pathologist Lederch began advising health care workers to use gauze masks to prevent bacterial infections


At the beginning of the 20th century, masks first became a necessity in public life.

As the Spanish flu swept the world, killing an estimated 50 million people, ordinary people were asked to wear masks to protect themselves from the virus.




news-JD WATER-face mask-img

In the middle and late 20th century, masks were frequently used on a large scale.

Masks have played an important role in preventing and blocking the spread of germs in several influenza pandemics in history.

In March 1897, German Medici introduced a method of covering the mouth and nose with gauze to prevent the invasion of bacteria.

Later, someone made a mask with six layers of gauze, which was sewn onto the collar and used by turning it over to cover the mouth and nose.

However, the mask has to be held down all the time, which is extremely inconvenient.

Then someone came up with a way to tie a strap around the ear, and it became the mask people use today.


In 1910, when the plague broke out in Harbin, China, Dr. Wu Liande, then deputy superintendent of Beiyang Army Medical College, invented the "Wu mask".


In 2003, the use and popularization of masks reached a new climax. The SARS epidemic almost made masks sold out for a time. There were long queues in front of major drugstores and people rushed to buy masks.


In 2009, after the 2004 "bird flu" pandemic, the H1N1 flu brought an army of masks to the world's news media once again.

The emergence of the concept of PM2.5 air hazards in 2013 drew public attention to air pollution, making masks and other protective products popular during hazy days.

On February 7, 2020, more than 30 medical workers and volunteers in the Disinfection and Supply Center of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi 'an Jiaotong University made masks using materials such as non-woven cloth in medical packaging, absorbent paper and N95 melting spray filter cloth for equipment.



Masks made by face mask machine are classified into medical masks and non-medical masks, and (and newly identified) civilian sanitary masks.


At present, China's mask standards mainly regulate the two areas of civil protection and medical protection.

Civil protective masks the standard GB/T 32610-2016 "technical specification for protective masks, GB 2626-2006 the respiratory protective equipment self-priming prevent particulate respirator filter type", mainly is suitable for the particulate matter protection, played an important role in the epidemic prevention and control, but to return to work and production of heavy use of block type mask (planar masks) cannot meet the requirements of the above two standards.


Medical standards GB 19083-2010 Technical Requirements for Medical Protective Masks, YY 0469-2011 Medical Surgical Masks, YY/T 0969-2013 Disposable Medical Masks, mainly applicable to medical institutions and places.

However, there is no appropriate standard for hygiene (barrier type) masks for the general public, depending on the situation and the people using them.

To better meet during the outbreak of masks the pressing needs of the masses, to facilitate the production/production enterprises adopt the application of the mask, guarantee product quality at the same time, facilitating market regulation, the middle of the first study, deployment, and demonstrates the established working group to the relevant standards and market research, and urgently to China textile industry association (hereinafter referred to as ZhongFang couplet) standardization technical committee put forward the civil masks group standard project application.

On March 11, THE Middle Class Association officially released the T/CNITA 09104-2020 "Hygienic Mask for Civilian Use" standard.

     
news-JD WATER-img

China's national standard suspended particle size & LT;

Over 90% of 5 microns, <

Over 70% of 2 microns, the flow value is 42.5L/min.

The idea of "worst case" is adopted in the inspection and certification of filter materials, that is, the conditions in the laboratory are set as the worst conditions.


When doing efficiency experiments, such as the ammoniation sodium salt or DOP oil mist of dust particle size of 0.3 microns diameter of gas dynamics calculation, it represents a very small and most easily through the filter material particle size, represents a strong engaged in physical labor in volume, even before the experiment to the pretreatment of high temperature and high humidity of filter material, on behalf of the poor working environment, all of these is the purpose of the inspection in such a harsh conditions, if the filter material can pass the test and the corresponding efficiency level, so in practice it can more effectively protect the health of workers.


Antitoxic filter material is generally used activated carbon or chemically treated activated carbon as a material, through adsorption or chemical reaction will be gas or gas vapor filtration and is not inhaled.

The internal structure of activated carbon has many micropores that can form a huge specific surface area. These micropores can absorb poisonous vapors and gas molecules of different sizes without escaping.


The treatment and installation of activated carbon requirements are very high, if the improper treatment or activated carbon particles are very thick, and cause intergranular gaps, then the gas will penetrate into the respiratory tract from the gaps, and will not be adsorbed.

Therefore, it is very unscientific to replace the bagged activated carbon by yourself.

In a good chemical filter box, the activated carbon should be filled with compactness, small particle size and large specific surface area, so as to prolong the anti-virus time. Meanwhile, it should also consider small respiratory resistance and be comfortable to wear. 

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How to select mask?

Efficiency of dust filtering

The dust resistance efficiency of the mask is based on its barrier efficiency for fine dust, especially for respirable dust under 2.5 microns.

Because this size of dust can be directly into the alveoli, the impact on human health is the greatest.

Gauze mask, its dust resistance principle is mechanical filtering, that is, when dust collision into gauze, through - layer upon layer of barrier, will be some large particles of dust in the sand.

For some fine dust, especially dust of less than 2.5 microns, it passes through the mesh of the gauze and into the respiratory system.

Dust respirator, its filter material activated carbon fiber felt pad or non-woven fabric composition, those less than 2.5 microns respirable dust in the process of passing through this filter material is blocked, play the role of filtering air.


Degree

The design of the mask is to prevent air from passing through the gap between the mask and the human face without being inhaled through the filter.

Air, like water flow, flows first where there is little resistance.

When masks don't fit close to the face, airborne hazards can leak into the respiratory tract as well.

So, even if you choose the filter material again good mask.

It doesn't protect your health.

Many foreign regulations and standards stipulate that workers should be regularly tested for mask tightness.

The aim is to ensure that workers choose appropriate size masks and wear them correctly.


Comfort

Then workers will be willing to wear them in the workplace and improve their productivity.

The current maintenance-free masks abroad do not need to be cleaned or replaced. They are discarded when the dust is saturated or the masks are damaged, which not only ensures the hygiene of the masks but also saves the workers time and energy to maintain the masks.

In addition, many masks adopt the arched shape, which not only ensures a good fit with the face shape, but also keeps a certain space at the mouth and nose for comfort.





For the filter material of a good protective mask, the following three conditions should be met: first, high filtration efficiency under the condition that the mask fits well with the user's face; second, low respiratory resistance; third, the user feels comfortable.

Dust mask filter material has a variety of materials, including ordinary fabrics, animal hair, non-woven fabrics, etc.

One of the most popular materials on the national label is activated carbon felt.

Structure and people face of gauze masks and sex is very poor, many of the great harm to our small particles will enter the respiratory tract through mask and facial aperture to the lungs, its filter material is more commonly mechanical fabric, this kind of filter material to achieve high efficiency of dust, the only way is to increase the thickness, and increase the thickness of the negative effect is to make the user feel breathing resistance is very big, don't feel comfortable.

Non-woven fabrics treated with electrostatic force can not only block large dust particles, but also the electrostatic charge attached to the surface can absorb small dust through electrostatic force, thus achieving high dust resistance efficiency.

The thickness of the filter material is very thin, which greatly reduces the user's breathing resistance and makes the user feel comfortable, thus achieving the three necessary conditions of good filter material mentioned above.

With a good filter material and a scientifically designed mask structure, an efficient and high-quality mask is formed.

Mask

Masks have to be the right size and the right way to be effective.

Masks on the market are generally divided into rectangular or cup-shaped types.

A rectangular mask must have at least three layers of paper to be protective.


The user has to press the wire on the bridge of the nose and spread out the whole mask along the bridge to be effective.

Allow your child to wear a rectangular surgical mask because it has no fixed shape and, if properly tied, can fit close to the child's face.

A cup-shaped mask needs to be dense enough to be applied to the face so that exhaled air does not leak.

When wearing a cup mask, try blowing with your hands over the mask to check if there is air leaking from the edges of the mask. If the mask is not tight, reposition the mask before wearing it.

Mask

Mask change:


1. The mask is contaminated with foreign bodies such as blood stains or droplets.

2. The user feels increased respiratory resistance.

3. Damaged masks.

4. Dustproof filter cotton: under the condition that the mask fits well with the user's face, when the user feels great respiratory resistance, the filter cotton is full of dust particles and should be replaced with a new mask.

5. The gas filter box should be replaced when the mask fits well with the user's face and the user smells poisonous.

6. Wear normal masks: Activated carbon masks can be used for 2 days, and N95 can be used for 1 week. If the mask has not been worn for a long time after cleaning, it is better to clean it again.




Look from the physiology structure of the person, because the blood circulation of mucous membrane of the nasal cavity of the person is very exuberant, the channel in nasal cavity is very tortuous, the nose wool constructs the "barrier" that rises a filtration.

As the air is drawn into the nostrils, it forms a vortex in a winding passage that warms the air drawn into the nasal cavity.

Tests have shown that when cold air is breathed through the nose into the lungs at -7 ° C, the air is warmed to 28.8 ° C, which is very close to the human body temperature.

If you wear a mask for a long time, the nasal mucosa will become fragile, losing the original physiological function of the nasal cavity, so you cannot wear a mask for a long time.

Masks can only be worn in special circumstances, such as in crowded, stuffy places.

Of course, it is necessary to wear a mask when walking in the wild, in order to resist the wind and sand and cold, or in the environment with air pollution, but the time should not be too long.

In addition, during the flu season, masks should be worn in public places where pathogens may be abundant.Wearing masks is to prevent respiratory infections. The most important thing is to maintain good living habits.


The outer layer of the mask tends to accumulate a lot of dirt in the outside air, such as dust and bacteria, and the inner layer is blocking the bacteria and saliva that exhale, therefore, both sides cannot be used alternately, otherwise the contaminated outer layer will be inhaled into the human body when directly sticking to the face, and become the source of infection.

When not wearing a mask, fold it into a clean envelope and fold the face close to your nose and mouth. Do not put it in your pocket or hang it around your neck.

If a mask is wet with exhaled heat or saliva, it is much less effective at blocking germs.

Therefore, it is better to have several masks at ordinary times to replace them and wash them once a day.

Scald for 5 minutes before washing.

Masks should be cleaned and disinfected daily. Both gauze masks and air filter masks can be disinfected by heating.

The specific measures are as follows:

1. Cleaning.

First, gently rub gauze mask with warm water and soap, bowl mask can be dipped in a soft brush detergent gently brush clean, and then clean with clean water.

Please be careful not to rub vigorously, because if the gap between the warp and the weft is too large, the gauze will lose its anti - droplet effect.

2. Disinfection.

Soak the cleaned mask in 2% peracetic acid solution for 30 minutes or boil it in boiling water for 20 minutes or steam it in a steamer for 15 minutes, then let dry and set aside.

This method is suitable for gauze masks and bowl masks.

3. Check.

Before use again, the mask and face mask should be carefully checked to see if they are still in good condition. For both gauze masks and face masks, the method of light transmission can be adopted, that is, take care of them in front of the light to see if there are any obvious spots of light. The transmission rate of the middle part is the same as that of the edge part.

In any case, masks and masks generally need to be updated after 3 to 7 washes, and a particularly good quality mask can be cleaned 10 times.

The activated carbon adsorption mask should pay attention to the regular replacement of the activated carbon sandwich. If the activated carbon sandwich is not replaceable, it should be replaced after 7 to 14 days. This mask cannot be cleaned and reused.





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